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Walter Royal Davis. 

B ook Fund 





Form No. A-368, Rev. 8/95 

Digitized by the Internet Archive 
in 2013 


9 ^ 


Are you wondering about the names of the Quaker Women pictured 
on the cover of Quaker Women ofCarolinal They were first drawn 
for the cover of Blueprints in 1964. 

Beginning at the top left is Elizabeth Fry who can well represent 
early Quaker women. She was an outstanding advocate of prison 
reform, accomplishing more prison reforms than any other woman 
in history. 

The next three women are unnamed: a Quaker maiden from a book 
of Quaker costumes; from an engraving entitled "Asking a 
Blessing"; and from a picture, "A Friends Meeting." 

The fifth is Lucretia Mott, the great leader in woman's suffrage who 
also worked imtiringly in the anti-slavery movement. 

Sybil Jones, Rufus Jones' aunt, was a Friends Minister. She has 
been called the Mother of the American Quaker Missionary 

Next is Eliza Clark Armstrong Cox, who "in the grip of a Beautiful 
Vision" was instrumental in organizing the Women's Missionary 
Movement She was bom at Cane Creek, North Carolina. 

Cornelia Bond was the delightful hostess at Quaker Hill in 
Richmond, Indiana, who has perhaps fed more "Children of Light" 
than any other person. 

Next is Helen Walker, for six years president of the United Society 
of Friends Women, and Clerk of the Five Years Meeting. 

Sarah Cecil of North Carolina, our beloved Advocate Editor, and 
Agnes Lund, president of the USFW, conclude the drawings. 

Quaker Women 
OF Carolina 

In I960 North Carolina women brought the first woman from East Africa 
Yearly Meeting, Leah Lung'aho, to attend the sessions of the Five Years 
Meeting. Here she is shown with two ofourAdvocM Editors, Ruth Hockett, 
lefi, and Sarah Cecil. 

Quaker Women 
OF Carolina 

Freedom — Achievement 

North Carolina Yearly Meeting 


A Vision 400 Publication 
Tercentenary Celebration 


Seth B. Hinshaw 
Mary Edith Hinshaw 

North CaroHna 
United Society of Friends Women 


Copyright© 1994 
by Seth B. Hinshaw and Mary Edith Hinshaw 

Library of Congress Catalog Card Number 94-066862 
ISBN Number 0-942727-24-x 

The cover design depicts Quaker leaders from the early 
years to the present, women who have sincerely sought 
to follow the Inner Light. 

The drawing, by Mary Edith Hinshaw, is borrowed 
from USFW Blueprints for 1964-1965. 

Composition by Friendly Desktop Publishing 
Printed by Thomson-Shore 


Illustrations 6 

Foreword 7 

Preface 9 

1 . Ideals of Equality 11 

2. Quaker Women Come to America 15 

3. Early Carolina Pioneers 19 

4. Notable Women Educators 29 

5. Concern For Human Values 43 

a 6. Leaders in Outreach 53 

7. Into a New Era 63 

J Appendix: North Carolina Presidents 

^ OF THE Women's Missionary Union and 

§ THE United Society of Friends Women 66 

€ Works Cited 67 








Ruth Reynolds Hockett, 

Leah Lung'aho, Sarah Cecil Frontispiece 

Mary Mendenhall Hobbs 26 

Alethea Coffin 32 

Mary Ann Stanley Peele 35 

Helen T. Binford 36 

EuLA Dixon 37 

Fanny Ozment Reynolds 38 

Alice Paige White 39 

Pansy Shore 40 

Miriam Levering 48 

Mary Chawner Woody 50 

Sara Richardson Haworth 51 

Eliza Armstrong Cox 55 

North Carolina USFW Women, 1939 57 

Lela Sills Garner 59 

Clara I. Cox 60 

Eva Miles Newlin 62 




"Whatsoever things are true, whatsoever things are honest, 
whatsoever things are just, whatsoever things are pure, whatsoever 
things are lovely, whatsoever things are of good report; if there be 
any virtue and if there be any praise, think on these things" (Phil. 
4:8). Certainly, Seth and Mary Edith Hinshaw's lives have so 
beautifully demonstrated these characteristics as they have lived 
and worked among Friends in North Carolina Yearly Meeting. 
They are an inimitable team. 

When one reads this book, it becomes immediately apparent 
that one particularly outstanding Quaker woman is not named, 
and that, of course, is Mary Edith Hinshaw herself During the 
sixteen years when Seth was Executive Secretary of North Carolina 
Yearly Meeting, Mary Edith worked tirelessly in many areas, 
especially the work of USFW and Christian education. She led 
workshops; she prepared materials; she read proof; she illustrated 
and edited: whatever needed to be done, she was ready and able to 
accomplish in her quiet, artistic way. Since those years, she has 
become an established painter and author in her own right. For 
several years, she has also been much involved in encouraging and 
assisting local meetings in preparing and publishing their histories. 

Q For a number of years, I was privileged to work in the Yearly 
Meeting office with Seth. Those years were memorable for me as 
I witnessed first hand his love for the local meetings and for the 
ministers and wives who served them. His skill in human relations 
is perhaps without equal. 


I began work in the fall of 1957, when our children were ten 
months, six and eight years. A neighbor kept Anne, the baby, and 
the others were in school. As spring arrived with the end of school 
at hand, I saw no way that I could work during the summer. When 
I told Seth my predicament, his answer was immediately forthcom- 
ing: "No problem. We have already decided; you will bring the 
children with you. Helen will look out for Phyllis, and Howard and 
Waldo will be happy to let Tommy help them with the house they 
are building." This arrangement went on for three summers, and 
we were all enriched by it. If it were burdensome to the Hinshaws, 
we never knew it. That is the kind of people they are! 

From the numerous booklets which he has written for use in 
Friends meetings to the longer works which have followed, Seth's 
writings reflect a wide knowledge of Friends and their contribu- 
tions. Any questions that may arise have already been answered, it 
seems, in his inspired treatment of material that might be much less 
appealing from someone else's pen. This book, like the others, is 
very readable through its use of humor and interesting incidents. It 
is a work which, like Seth's and Mary Edith's other endeavors, will 
grow even more valuable with the passage of time. 

M2iry R. Butt 

Retired English teacher 

and pastor's wife 

I ; 

, ■ • - I ... 


- . c . 



A brief survey of notable North Carolina Quaker women who 
have lived and served in earlier years seems to be an appropriate part 
of the present Tercentenary Celebration. As indicated by the 
theme, VISION 400, this celebration is forward-looking in nature. 
Even so, some knowledge of the past is necessary to give direction 
to a creative future. 

No doubt many persons will be saying, "My mother or my 
grandmother should have been included in this list." This is true; 
but to use a New Testament phrase, "Time would fail" to name all 
the great servants of God who have labored faithfully for the 
Church and the Kingdom in preceding years. 

Perhaps the brief stories on the following pages may serve as an 
occasion for remembering, and for breathing a prayer of loving 
gratitude for all the great Quaker women who have gone before. 
One of the great facts of life is that many of God's richest blessings 
come to us by way of human hands. "Freely we have received!" 

Seth and Mary Edith Hinshaw 
Greensboro, North Carolina 



to the memory of 

Abigail Overman Pike 

who assisted in the founding 
of Early Friends Meetings in the Piedmont. 


Ideals of Equality 

The life and teachings of Jesus brought a new and revolu- 
tionary concept into the world: the equality of women! 
This constituted one of the greatest turning points, or watersheds, 
in human history. 

The concept of equality was so radically different from prevail- 
ing thought in the ancient world that even the early Apostles could 
scarcely grasp the significance of it. Paul himself seems to have 
faltered a bit at this point (I Corinthians 14:34), but in the final 
analysis he came to the conclusion that there can be no discrimina- 
tion in Christ (Galatians 3:28). 

Unfortunately, after the first century of the Christian era, the 
Church began to slip back into the old patterns of thinking. For 
many weary centuries the "man's-world" philosophy prevailed. 
Women were relegated to a secondary position. 

Then came George Fox and the Quakers. They did not invent 
something new. Their emphasis upon the equality of women was 
simply a return to New Testament Christianity. It would not be 
right to say that Quaker men granted equal status to women, for 
that would imply a generous concession on their part. All that can 
be asserted is that men were sufficiently honest before God to 
accept the fact of Divine Creation. Fox put it this way: "Let the 
Creation have its liberty." 

Margaret H. Bacon has said: 

The Quaker concept of the true equality of women was 
revolutionary when it was brought to this country in 

Quaker Women of Carolina 

1656. Its revolutionary potential is still affecting us all. 
. . .we need to know more about its Quaker origins.^ 

In the light of this high concept of equality, why did early 
Friends develop the custom of holding separate business meetings 
for men and women? 

The answer takes us back into the early days of the Quaker 
movement when persecution was severe. Great numbers of Friends 
were thrown into prison for refusing to take oaths and for a number 
of other reasons. This left women whose husbands were in jail, and 
children whose parents were in jail, in extremely difficult circum- 
stances. George Fox perceived that there were special forms of 
service which could best be rendered by women, such as feeding the 
hungry, visiting the sick, caring for children, and seeking to reclaim 
individual women who might have gone astray. Fox believed that 
this work could best be considered by women alone — meetings for 
business, if you please. From these small beginnings, business 
meetings for women took form and continued for more than two 
hundred years. 

As Quaker groups grew larger, meeting houses were built, and 
it became customary for partitions to be put into the middle of the 
room, with shutters which could be closed during business sessions 
and opened for worship. Thus it was that women came to be seated 
on one side of the room and men on the other.^ 

Two observations seem to be in order here. First, old customs 
tend to continue long after the need for them has passed. Appar- 
ently this was true of separate business meetings. A second obser- 

' Leonard Kenworthy, Nine Contemporary Quaker Women Speak. Kennett 
Square, PA: Quaker Publications, 1992. 

^Separate business meetings were discontinued in North Carolina Yearly 
Meeting in 1899. Priscilla B. Hackney was the last clerk for women. 


Ideals of Equality 

vation is that men of past years seemed to think that their business 
meetings were superior and required that all important items of 
business be referred to them for final action. On the positive side, 
one could say that by having separate business meetings women 
gained valuable experience in the affairs of the church which would 
not have been possible otherwise in the seventeenth century.^ 

There has always seemed to be some hesitation about women 
preachers. George Fox was troubled by some "dark souls" who 
opposed the idea. After all, an innovation of this kind ran counter 
to a tradition which was more than a thousand years old. In the early 
days of the Quaker movement, no one planned in advance just what 
should happen in meetings for worship. Women who were moved 
by the Spirit simply arose and spoke. Who could oppose the 
leadings of the Holy Spirit? Obviously Divine blessing was upon 
their ministry, judging the results in a pragmatic, matter-of-fact 
manner. The rightness of a concept can be known by its conse- 
quences. The Quaker theologian Robert Barclay put it this way: 

God hath effectually in this day convinced many souls by 
the ministry of women and by them also frequently 
comforted the souls of his children, which manifest 
experience puts the thing beyond all controversy. 

Apology, 328 

While in prison Margaret Fell Fox wrote a treatise entitled 
Women 5 Preaching Justified in the Scriptures. Her book has been 
called a pioneer manifesto regarding the equality of women. 
Quaker women responded to their "liberation" in a noble manner. 

The following, quoted from Kenworthy, summarizes the situ- 
ation in a concise way: 

^In the discussion concerning unified business sessions, one man said with 
great solemnity, "I approve of our embracing the women." 


Quaker Women of Carolina 

Few other religious groups have accorded women the 
place that Friends have given them or, in turn, been so 
enriched by their talents. But Quaker women have been 
important far beyond the boundaries of the Society of 
Friends, providing many of the leaders and a large 
portion of the rank and file support of such movements 
as women's rights, prison reform, the abolition of sla- 
very, temperance, education and peace.^ 


''Leonard Kenworthy, Quakerism. Dublin, IN: Prinit Press, 1981, 100. 



Quaker Women Come to America 

The very first Quakers who braved the Atlantic to come to 
America v^ere Mary Fisher and Ann Austin, who arrived 
in Puritan, Massachusetts, in 1656. The following year four other 
Friends arrived, three of whom were women. The first Quaker to 
visit Maryland and Virginia was Elizabeth Harris, native of Lon- 
don, in 1665. 

Among the first women preachers in seventeenth century 
England was Elizabeth Hooten. She began her ministry as a Baptist, 
but joined the Quaker movement as one of Fox's first converts. She 
continued with Friends for the next twenty years. Elizabeth Hooten 
was intensely active in social concerns and could be listed as the 
forerunner of Elizabeth Fry in prison reform. She and her daughter 
traveled to America where they faced Puritan hostility and cruelty 
in Massachusetts. No one in the Quaker movement exceeded her 
in courage, bravery and devotion. She died while on a preaching 
mission to Jamaica in 1671. 

Mary Fisher was an English servant girl who began to preach 
soon after being convinced of the Quaker faith. She dared to preach 
to the students at Cambridge University. For this she was cruelly 
whipped, the first flogging received by a Friend in England. She 
survived this experience, then crossed the Atlantic to face cruel 
treatment by the Puritans in Massachusetts. She is perhaps best 
remembered for her visit to the Sultan of Turkey, where she 
explained to him the error of his religious beliefs. He treated her 
with more courtesy and respect than did the Puritans in New 

Quaker Women of Carolina 

Most widely known among the early Quaker women who came 
to America are Mary Dyer and Ann Austin. In Puritan Massachu- 
setts they were stripped to the waist and searched for marks of 
witchcraft. Their books were burned; they were put into prison 
where they were held in solitary confinement. Then they were 
shipped to the Barbados and forbidden to return. Returning to 
Boston was made a capital offense for Quakers, but this did not 
deter Mary Dyer. She came back, and was hanged on Boston 
Common 1660.^ 

The martyrdom of Mary Dyer and three other Quakers served 
as a beginning point for the development of religious freedom in 
America. The King of England forbade any further executions for 
religious reasons in the Colonies. These Quakers did not die in 

Valuable though their martyrdoms were in the establishment 
of religious freedom in America, this was not their primary reason 
for coming. It was the Christian Gospel and their faithful obedi- 
ence to the Great Commission. Their inner leadings were stronger 
than fear, nobler than self-interest. Their conviction that all 
persons are the objects of Christ's redemptive love and that every 
soul is precious in the sight of God — this sent them forth.^ 

A bronze statue of Mary Dyer now stands on Boston Common. 
A replica of this statue has been placed at the Friends Center in 
Philadelphia and on the campus of Earlham College in Indiana. 
Could it be that the time has come for North Carolina Friends to 
place a similar statue on the Guilford College campus.'* 

One of the first Quaker women to visit Piedmont Carolina was 

'See biography by Ethel White, Bear His Mild Yoke. New York: Abingdon, 



Quaker Women Come to America 

Catharine Phillips, a British Friend. Her epic journey through the 
largely unsettled wilderness occurred during the winter of 1753- 
1754. The reason for her late start was the fact that she was on 
shipboard for nine long weeks. She was not able to leave Charles- 
ton, South Carolina, until winter had set in. 

Catharine Phillips and her companions departed for "the 
waters of Haw River" the last ofNovember. On December 20th she 
wrote: "We rode that day about forty miles through the woods 
without seeing any house." The next day they traveled about the 
same distance and at night found the ground wet and the weather 
very cold. "We spent the night very uncomfortable . . . but resigned 
in spirit."^ 

After traveling thus for some time they set out one morning 
hoping to reach the new settlement of Friends at New Garden. It 
was farther than they knew, and "we thought it best to stop at 

Polecat [Creek] " They finally reached New Garden. "We were 

the first from Europe that had visited them. ..." 

From New Garden they went to Cane Creek, then to a small 
meeting on the Eno River. In early January they reached Rocky 
River community, then set out for Carver's Creek, "a journey of 
about 160 miles." Finally they headed toward the "Perquimans 
River, on which the main body of Friends was settled."^ 

Catharine Phillips was a single young lady at the time of this 
arduous winter journey. Just what her specific accomplishments 
were, we do not know. This story is included to indicate that 
courage, bravery and the power to endure belonged to women as 
well as men in the early years of the Quaker settlement of Carolina. 

^Catharine Phillips, Memoirs. London: J. Phillips & Son, 1797. 

"^In the early years, geographical locations in Eastern Carolina were indicated 
by creeks and rivers. 


Quaker Women of Carolina 

For many thousands of years before Quaker women came to 
Carolina, Indian girls, wives and mothers lived in the area. History 
has mostly forgotten these predecessors. What were they like? We 
know very little about them, other than that different tribes and 
various customs prevailed from one century to another. One early 
colonist (1612) described the Indians of Virginia and Carolina as 
"generally tall of stature . . . and the women have handsome limbs 

. . . and pretty hands When they sing they have a delightful and 

pleasant tang in their voices." Legend also has it that Perquimans 
means "Land of Beautiful Women." 


Early Carolina Pioneers 

One of the first Quaker families to settle in Carolina was 
that of Henry Phillips, who reached the Albemarle 
country in what is now Perquimans County in 1665. His wife's 
name is not known. It seems that this family was "convinced of the 
Truth" in New England. They made their way down to Carolina 
where religious freedom prevailed.^ 

To understand the coming of Friends to Carolina, one must 
remember that there were two great migrations of Friends into the 
state: one to Eastern Carolina in the late 1600s; another into the 
Piedmont in the mid- 1700s. 

Friends in the Perquimans area established three monthly 
meetings as early as 1680. (This was the year before William Penn 
received a land grant from King Charles II, to which he gave the 
name — Pennsylvania.) The first item of business recorded in the 
newly organized Perquimans Quarterly Meeting was the marriage 
of Ann Atwood and Christopher Nicholson. Thus it is that Ann 
Atwood has the honor of being the first woman to be mentioned in 
the earliest existing records of Carolina Friends. This was more than 
half a century before Friends began settling in the Piedmont section 
of the state. 

As to marriages, for several decades after the first settlers arrived 
in Eastern Carolina no priest nor magistrate was available to 

^ Quite recently Carlton Rountree has discovered records which indicate 
that other Friends were then living in Carolina, but this was not indicated by 
either Edmundson or Fox. 

Quaker Women of Carolina 

perform wedding ceremonies. Fortunately the Quakers did not 
have to resort to common law marriages, as did other people in the 
area. As soon as a monthly meeting was set up, marriages were 
arranged for in the most careful manner. In a duly arranged service 
of worship the bride and groom arose and said their vows to each 
other, then signed a certificate to that effect. Other signatures were 
added, and careful records were kept. It might be added that 
English law finally accepted this form of marriage in 1754, and 
North Carolina law in 1 778, as soon as the independent colony had 
worked out its own legal system. 

As an interesting insight into customs three hundred years ago, 
the following was recorded in 1691: 

At a Mans & Womans Meeting at ye house of Christo- 
pher Nicholson in Perquimanes River ye 1 3 th day of ye 
sixth month 1681 Henry White & Dameris Morison 
laying their intentions of Marriage before the Meeting it 
being referred to ye next mans & womans Meeting at 
Little River for further Enquiry. 

There were no hasty or ill-considered marriages among Friends 
in the early years of Carolina. 

In pioneer settlements, both in Eastern Carolina and later in 
the Piedmont, there was a rather clear-cut separation be- 
tween the occupational roles of men and women. Families were 
usually large, and there was a great amount of housework to be done 
— spinning, weaving, sewing and the like — along with child care.^ 
This kept women occupied from morning until night. For most 
pioneer women, there was little opportunity for activities outside 
the home. Fortunately, they were more adept at household tasks, 
. , i , 

^In pioneer days clothing requirements were said to be: "One sheep per 
person, plus a patch of flax and a patch of cotton." 


Early Carolina Pioneers 

and hopefully they were happy with their role in life. North 
Carolina did not develop commercially as early as some other 
colonies. There were no good harbors such as those in Massachu- 
setts, New York and Pennsylvania. As the years passed, however, 
Carolina Quaker women played pretty much the same roles as did 
their counterparts farther north. 

The history of Friends in North Carolina is brightened and 
enriched by the story of Anne the Huntress in the New Garden 
community.^ Dorothy Gilbert suggested that "this account belongs 
more to romance than to factual history, but we would all be the 
poorer without it. 

Legend has it that in the early years (precise date uncertain, 
probably around 1760) a crowd had assembled about a mile east of 
New Garden for a shooting match, a common event when hunters 
loved to test their skills, and enjoy a day of community fellowship. 
Out of the surrounding forest stepped a beautiful young lady 
dressed in Indian attire, carrying a highly ornamented hunting rifle 
and wearing a belt with shot pouch, hunting knife and a sharp 

Politely requesting permission to enter the contest, she stepped 
forward, gracefully raised her rifle, took quick aim and fired. The 
bullet hit the precise center of the target. When she did this the 
second time, amazement overwhelmed the crowd. 

With customary hospitality, Friends invited her into their 
homes. For the next seventeen years or so she remained, charming 
the children and parents with her marvelous stories. As she visited 

^Not to be confused with Annie Oakley, the sharpshooter of more recent 

^Dorothy Gilbert, Guilford a Quaker College. Greensboro: Guilford Col- 
lege, 1937. 


Quaker Women of Carolina 

from home to home she taught the children correct grammar and 
refined pronunciation. She particularly objected to the dropping of 
final consonants, as was common in pioneer days. Working with 
children in this way seemed to be the greatest joy of her life — unless 
it was hunting in the surrounding forest. She earned her keep by her 
wonderful skill with the hunting rifle. 

When Anne the Huntress disappeared as mysteriously as she 
had come, she left a wonderful educational influence in the 
community. It was a better place for children, for young people and 
also for their parents. 

Both mystery and romance are woven into this story. Where 
did this beautiful young lady come from? Where did she receive her 
obviously excellent education? Why did she never disclose her 
name other than Anne the Huntress? Why did she choose to linger 
in the New Garden community so long? No one will ever know.^ 

Not all traveling Quaker women during the early years were 
coming toward Carolina. Charity Wright Cook, for example, was 
born in Maryland in 1745. The Wright family moved to the Cane 
Creek area in 1748 when little Charity was about three years old. 
From thence they moved to Bush River in South Carolina, prob- 
ably in 1760. There she married Isaac Cook. 

In the course of time Charity became the mother of eleven 
children. Her husband Isaac took care of the smaller children, one 
would presume, while she sat on the facing bench as a minister at 
the old Bush River Meeting. 

In Addison Coffin's brief account of the Bush River Meeting, 
he recounts an incident in which Charity Cook and her husband 

^The earliest written source of this story seems to be a manuscript, "The 
Early Settlement of Friends in North CaroUna," by Addison Coffin. Friends 
Historical Collection, Guilford College, 1894. 


Early Carolina Pioneers 

undertook to cross Reuben's Creek when the water was high. The 
"stage wagon" was overturned, and the two horses were drowned. 
Isaac escaped by cHnging to a log, while Charity swam out! This 
seemed to be a remarkable feat for a woman with the long skirts and 
multiple petticoats of that day. 

When the children were old enough for Isaac to assume care of 
them, Charity went abroad on a preaching mission which lasted 
between four and five years! 

Charity Cook was not always well received in England. At one 
time she created a sensation in London by walking down the street 
smoking a pipe! This was a common custom in pioneer Carolina 
but a bit strange in England. 

In London Yearly Meeting the question arose as to whether 
men's hats should have stays in them. Probably remembering her 
brother-in-law Isaac Hollingworth's floppy hat, she dared to enter 
into the discussion, much to the annoyance of British Friends. Was 
she not from the back country of the Carolina wilderness? 

Her speaking may have been of the highest quality, but it was 
not always duly appreciated. A British Friend, James Jenkins, wrote 
that at Banbury Quarterly Meeting "Charity Cook and Mary Sweet 
from America exercised their little gifts in the ministry."^ 

In the 1700s there was no way to phone ahead to announce 
one's travel plans. Thus it happened that Charity Cook arrived 
home at Bush River on First Day morning during the hour of 
worship. She entered the meeting quietly and took her seat on the 
women's side of the room, all unknown to her husband, Isaac. After 
a time she arose and offered prayer, perhaps a prayer ofthanksgiving 

^Material in this story was gleaned from Charity Cook, A Liberated Woman, 
Algie I. Newlin. Richmond, IN: Friends United Press, 1981. 


Quaker Women of Carolina 

at being safely home again. Isaac recognized his wife's voice, and 
when the prayer was finished, he arose, walked to the women's side 
of the room, leaned over and kissed her. After the meeting, one of 
the men rebuked Isaac sharply for breaking into the worship in such 
an unseemly manner. Isaac's reply: "If thee had not seen thy wife 
for over four years, thee would have done the same thing." 

Apparently the greater part of Charity Cook's ministry was in 
home visitation rather than in preaching. In family situations her 
ministry could be more intimate and direct. Sometimes she visited 
as many as thirty families in one week. She did not like to leave a 
community without having been in every home. 

Cane Creek has been called the "Mother of Meetings" in 
Piedmont Carolina. This meeting was also the Grand- 
mother of other meetings. For example. Cane Creek established 
New Garden, which in turn set up other meetings. And so on. 

But who was the individual most instrumental in setting up 
Cane Creek? Why, a woman of course: Abigail Overman Pike! 

She and her husband, John Pike, were living in the Pasquotank 
Precinct in the 1 730s when they heard that a new meeting had been 
established in Frederick County, Virginia. She felt a concern to go 
and assist in this new Quaker settlement. They had two small 
children at that time. During their eleven-year stay at Hopewell 
Meeting in Virginia, the number increased to eight. 

Abigail Pike's next concern was to assist Friends in the Cane 
Creek Valley where a rather large number of Friends had settled. By 
1751 there was need for the establishment of a monthly meeting. 
But who would go to the Quarterly Meeting at Little River in 
Perquimans County and make the request? Finally Abigail Pike 
said to Cane Creek Friends, "If Rachel Wright will go with me, we 
will go . . . and ask that a meeting be set up here." Her offer was 


Early Carolina Pioneers 

These two hardy, dedicated women rode two hundred miles on 
horseback through the wilderness and later returned safely — 
mission accomplished. Cane Creek Meeting was set up accord- 
ingly, October 7, 175 1 / Abigail Pike next assisted in the establish- 
ment of New Garden Meeting, thirty-five miles to the west, 1754. 

The Ann and Thomas Jessup home was located about a mile 
north of New Garden, near where the Battle of Guilford 
Court House was fought in 178 1 . After the battle, Ann Jessup cared 
for a number of the wounded soldiers; she was truly an angel of 
mercy. Two things shoiJd be noted here. Both General Greene and 
General Cornwallis marched hurriedly away from the scene of 
battle, leaving their dead and wounded men where they fell. New 
Garden Quakers were asked to take care of them, although the 
community had been stripped bare of food and supplies. This 
meant hardship for local Friends. The second fact to be noted is that 
the Quaker women of the area rose to the occasion in heroic fashion 
and should be remembered individually; but their names are now 
known only to the God whom they served. Also it might be added 
that care was extended to British and Colonial soldiers alike, and 
those who died were buried side by side in the New Garden 

An incident of heroic courage, typical of many others during 
these difficult years, might be mentioned. When the Army of 
Cornwallis was camped at Deep River Meeting House before the 
Battle of Guilford Court House, the community was swept bare of 
all foodstuff In writing about her great grandmother, Judith 
Gardner Mendenhall, Mary Mendenhall Hobbs said: 

At last the remaining milch cow was driven up the hill by 
the soldiers. There was a household of children to be fed 

The one— room log structure known as the "Abigail Pike House" was used 
as a classroom in the early days of Sylvan Academy. 


Quaker Women of Carolina 

Mary Mendenhall Hobbs 

and this cow was the only remaining source of supply. 
Nothing daunted, Judith went at once to the headquar- 
ters of the army and laid the situation before the officer 
in charge, who at once issued the order that the cow be 
returned to the owner. Judith walked down the hill 
leading her cow.^ 

When Ann Jessup of the New Garden Meeting felt a 
concern to visit Friends in England in 1790, little did 
she know how her visit would turn out. While there she was much 
impressed by the quality of English fruits and flowers. She decided 
to bring home a quantity of seeds, bulbs and cuttings. Near her 
home about a mile north of New Garden was a neighbor, Abijah 

^Algie I. Newlin, The Battle of New Garden. Greensboro: North Carolina 
Friends Historical Society, 1977. 


Early Carolina Pioneers 

Pinson, who was an expert in grafting fruit trees. Ann Jessup 
employed him to develop an orchard and a plant farm, the first in 
Piedmont Carolina. 

Later, Pinson moved to the Westfield Quaker community, 
where he developed a large nursery. From there fruit trees were sent 
all over the countryside and into western states, especially to 
Indiana, Ohio and Illinois. Many people never knew how much 
they were indebted to a Quaker minister, Ann Jessup! 

Asenath Hunt Clark, was another notable Quaker woman to 
travel abroad from North Carolina. She was the daughter of 
Nathan Hunt, and wife of Dougan Clark, of the Springfield 
community. Both were prominent in the work of Friends in the 
mid-1 800s. 

Asenath Clark spent a great deal of time visiting the various 
meetings in the central part of the state. One incident in her 
ministry has become a tradition in the Springfield community, but 
no one today can verify the accuracy of the details. The story goes 
that on one occasion when she was away from home torrential rains 
fell across the countryside. Dougan Clark was concerned for her 
safety. He went to the bridge across Deep River some distance away 
and found that the flooring had been washed away by the flood- 
water current. He concluded that she could not cross the river and 
would spend the night with Friends on the other side. After 
returning home he heard the familiar sounds of a horse and buggy 
approaching. He hurried outside to see Asenath calmly dismount- 
ing from the buggy. Dumbfounded, he said, "How did thee get 

"In the usual way, Dougan." 

His curiosity was such that the next morning they went to the 
site of the bridge and found the situation as Dougan had said. 
Apparently the horse had gingerly walked the center beam of the 


Quaker Women of Carolina 

bridge, and the buggy wheels had followed the side beams. With 
muddy water swiftly flowing, this was no small accomplishment.^ 

As a matter of special interest it could be noted that DoUey 
Payne was born of Quaker parents in the New Garden 
community in 1 768. The family soon moved to Philadelphia. Most 
of her life was spent in Washington, where she became well known 
for her charm and tact as a hostess and as the wife of President James 

She is also remembered for heroic courage during the siege of 
Washington in the War of 1812. 

^Francis C. Anscombe, I Have Called You Friends. Boston: The Christopher 
Press, 1958, 133. 


Notable Women Educators 

One of the outstanding characteristics of the Quaker 
movement in the 1600s was equal education for girls, a 
radical, revolutionary step forward at that time. Most people are 
familiar with George Fox's statement: 

Returning to London ... I advised the setting up of a 
school for . . . instructing girls and young maidens in 
whatsoever things were civil and useful. 

This new ideal did not mean that women in Quaker groups 
were automatically and instantly educated. Since most girls and 
women had received little education, Fox saw the necessity of 
beginning with schools. This took time and effort. As the years 
passed the value of the Quaker concept became evident in many 
ways, especially in the fact that a refined, well-educated mother is 
among the greatest good fottunes a child can have — in any part of 
the world or at any time in history. 

Since a mother is the earliest and most important teacher of her 
child, she has the privilege and opportunity of imparting spiritual 
ideals: courtesy, kindness, honesty, integrity all that make for the 
highest level of Christian character. It has been said that the quality 
of a community is determined by the status of women in that 
community. This we know: the cultural education of women is of 
paramount importance. 

Women have contributed enormously to the educational 
progress among Carolina Friends during the past three centuries. 
Among the early schools for girls in the Piedmont, two were in the 

Quaker Women of Carolina 

Deep River-Jamestown community. Early in the 1800s Judith 
Mendenhall, daughter of Richard Mendenhall, was sent to 
Georgetown, Pennsylvania, to secure an advanced education. 
Upon returning she established the Female Seminary Academy 
near Jamestown in 1816, the first special school for girls among 
Friends in the South. ^ 

Somewhat later, two Quaker women, Margaret Davis and 
Penelope Gardner conducted an elementary boarding school for 
Quaker girls near Deep River, which was called the Florence 
Female Academy. One of the outstanding teachers was Abigail 
Mendenhall. The school prospered for a time, but the Civil War 
came, and the school was discontinued in 1865. The building still 
stands at the corner of Penny Road and East Fork Road. 

The scarcity of teachers for monthly meeting elementary 
schools in the early 1 800s became alarming to Friends. So great was 
the need that some teachers would hold two or three schools a year 
in different communities. For example, "Mary Henley's School" 
was held in three separate neighborhoods for a number of years. 

This desperate need for teachers was the primary incentive for 
establishing New Garden Boarding School. The decision was made 
in 1832, and a committee of eight men and eight women was 
appointed to select the location. 

This was a great undertaking for North Carolina Friends. 
Westward migrations had weakened the yearly meeting so much 
that the establishment of the school did not come about easily or 
without sacrifice. At that time nearly all Carolina Friends were 
farmers. Products from their farms were exchanged for the items 
which they could not produce for themselves. They handled little 

'Paula S. Jordan, Women of Guilford. Greensboro, NC: Greensboro Print- 
ing Company, 1979, 25. 


Notable Women Educators 

money, and there was little surplus for educational purposes. 

In keeping with the equality principle, New Garden Boarding 
School was opened in 1 837 with twenty-five girls and twenty-five 
boys. This fact, at least in part, caused Nathan Hunt to say of this 
event, "I did believe that the beginning was made in pure wisdom." 
Nereus Mendenhall insisted that a girl's education ought to be on 
the same level as a boy's; hence classes were composed of both boys 
and girls. To him an intellect was an intellect, whether possessed by 
a girl or a boy. This school was the first coeducational institution 
in the South. Other denominational schools in the state were 
founded during the same period of time, but they were not 
coeducational in the earliest years. 

Among the first instructors at New Garden Boarding School 
was Asenath Clark, daughter of Nathan Hunt and wife of Dougan 
Clark. Harriet Peck and Catharine Cornell were secured as teachers 
from New England. Alethea Coffin was appointed as matron — an 
enterprising, pioneering person who had emigrated to Indiana 
once, walking more than half the way because she did not like to 
ride in the jolting wagon. She returned on horseback in 1 833. She 
planned to go to Indiana again but became so deeply interested in 
New Garden Boarding School that she stayed in North Carolina 
nearly twenty years. The story of Alethea Coffin's life as related by 
her son, Addison Coffin, in his Life and Travels, is truly an amazing 
saga and deserves a place of honor in Quaker annals. The school 
prospered with Nereus Mendenhall as superintendent and Alethea 
Coffin as matron. 

One of the striking features in the establishment of New 
Garden Boarding School was the strong, capable women who gave 
it leadership: Asenath Clark, Abigail Stanley, Nancy Hunt and 
Alethea Coffin. When the school became a college in 1888 the 
women leaders were Mary Mendenhall Hobbs, Mary E. Mendenhall 
and Priscilla B. Hackney. Three outstanding young teachers were 


Quaker Women of Carolina 

Alethea Coffin 

Julia S. White, Gertrude W. Mendenhall and Mary M. Petty. 
Dorothy Gilbert stated that "Their influence was strong for many 


years. i 



Notable Women Educators 

The Quaker trained teachers from New Garden Boarding 
School in the early years did far more than conduct classes. Allen Jay 

With the blessing of the Lord upon these dear teachers 
the monthly meetings began to receive members, a 
family at a time, sometimes two or three families. 
Sometimes the children in the school led their parents 
into church.^ 

The yearly meeting Minutes stated that the teachers' task was 
to "conduct schools, visit families, assist in First Day Schools, teach, 
and lead in worship." Allen Jay further stated that some of them did 
pastoral work in the homes. They did not call it pastoral work, but 
it was "blessed in many ways." 

Of the many teachers who went out from New Garden 
Boarding School, just how many were young men and how many 
young women, we do not know. We do know that equal education 
for girls resulted in better education across the state and also in 
more refined, more enlightened homes. 

By the middle of the nineteenth century sufficient progress had 
been made for Randolph and Guilford counties to be called the 
educational center of the state for women. In 1 8 59 the Greensborough 
Patriot st2itcd that within a radius of twenty miles of High Point 
"there cannot be less than 1,000 girls at school within that 

In speaking of women in education it is natural to give special 
attention to eminent teachers, but some of the greatest contribu- 
tions to Quaker education in North Carolina were made in other 

^A]len]3y, Autobiography. Philadelphia: John C. Winston Company, 1910. 
'^Jordan, 33, 34. 


Quaker Women OF Carolina 

ways. In some instances, husband and wife teams shared equally in 
heroic service. At two different times this happened when the 
continued existence of New Garden Boarding School, and conse- 
quently Guilford College, was at stake. Two great women, working 
heroically with their husbands, saved the school. 

In 1860 the debt on the school was such that many Friends 
thought that closing it was the only possibility. To make the story 
brief, Jonathan and Elizabeth Cox were faced with the challenge of 
operating the school for a time while others wo rked at fund-raising. 
To quote Dorothy Gilbert: 

In one sleepless night Jonathan and Elizabeth Cox put 
aside the consideration of their own temporal welfare 
and took on a burden they were to carry for thirteen 
years. ^ 

Elizabeth Cox obviously shared equally in the sacrificial devo- 
tion which made possible the continued existence of the school. 

Much has been written about Dr. Nereus Mendenhall and his 
difficult decision to stay with New Garden Boarding School when 
greater opportunities opened to him in the West. Equal credit is 
due his wife, Oriana. Her daughter, Mary Mendenhall Hobbs, 
described the momentous occasion thus: 

Another picture ... of my father and mother standing 
together in the old library at the Boarding School, both 
weeping. He was saying, "Oriana, if I feel that the Lord 
requires me to stay, is thee willing to give up going and 
stay here?" Mother said, "Certainly, if that is thy feeling, 
I am satisfied to stay."^ 

^Gilbert, 100. 
^Ibid, 101. 


Notable Women Educators 

Trunks filled with personal possessions, already at the railroad 
station, were brought back to their rooms and unpacked. 

They remained to serve at New Garden Boarding School. Its 
continued existence was assured. 

During the Civil War and 
for a number of years after- ^ ^ 
ward, the state public 
school system ceased to 
operate. The situation 
was such that Joseph 
Moore said of the / 
Quaker schools, "I 
know of no system in 
operation but ours." 
E. W. Knight observed 
that the Quakers are 
doing more to recon- 
struct the state than all 
the Legislators." One of 
the most important phases 
of this educational program 
was the establishment of 
teacher-training institutes, 
called Normal Schools. These 
were held at Springfield Deep River, Belvidere, Greensboro, 
Asheboro and Goldsboro. 

Mary Stanley Peek 

According to Zora Klain, after the Civil War the general 
population across the state was too impoverished and discouraged 
to take energetic action in education. 

The Quakers in North Carolina . . . were the first in the 
state immediately after the war to take up the work of 


Quaker Women of Carolina 

training and providing for the educational needs of the 
children . . . the Quakers bent their efforts in bridging the 
gap left open/ 

Among the women working with Normal Schools were Mary^ 
Mendenhall Hobbs, Mary M. Petty and Mary Chawner Woody. 

They were specially 
concerned for the great 
numbers of girls across 
the state who were 
poor and had no op- 
portunity for an edu- 
cation. In cooperation 
with Charles D. 
Mclver, they were in- 
strumental in getting 
the Greensboro Nor- 
mal School established 
— later to become 
Woman's College in 
1891, now the Uni- 
versity ofNorth Caro- 
HelenBinford lina at Greensboro 

(UNCG). The strong 

address which Mary Mendenhall Hobbs gave before the North 
Carolina General Assembly is credited with persuading the Legis- 
lature to appropriate funds for this purpose. 

At Guilford College the same three Marys organized the Girls 
Aid Committee of the yearly meeting in 1 899, which raised funds 
for a self-help dormitory, New Garden Hall, constructed in 1907. 

''ZoraKlain, Quaker Contributions to Education in North Carolina. Philadel- 
phia: University of Pennsylvania, Doctoral Dissertation, 1824, 265. 


Notable Women Educators 

It was later renamed Mary Hobbs Hall. For her work in the field of 
education, Mary M. Hobbs was awarded an honorary doctorate by 
the University of North Carolina in 1 92 1 , the first Quaker woman 
in the state to be so honored. 

The wife of each succeeding president of Guilford College has 
been an outstanding educator in her own right: Mary Mendenhall 
Hobbs, Helen T. Binford, 
Ernestine C. Milner, Lois 
Ann Hobbs and 
Beverley P. Rogers. 

On the local 
level, perhaps each 
community could 
name some note- 
worthy school 
teacher, such as 
Eula Dixon of the 
Cane Creek area. 
Fanny O. Reynolds 
of the Centre Meet- 
ing taught in several 
different communities, 
perhaps longest at 
Jamestown. Her husband, 
Herbert Reynolds, and all seven 

of the children were teachers. Six of the seven graduated from 
Guilford College and one from North Carolina State. Three earned 
Ph.D. degrees. Quakers have furnished a disproportionately great 
number of teachers in the present century. Cordelia Cox Hinshaw 
of the Holly Spring community, for example, taught school, as did 
all five of her children, two daughters-in-law, two sons-in-law 
and four grandchildren — thirteen teachers in one family! 

Eula Dixon 


Quaker Women of Carolina 

With reference to the development of Sunday Schools 
among North Carolina Friends, first-place honor seems 
to belong to Abigail Anderson of the Springfield community. She 
saw a need, developed a concern, then did something about it. She 

began a small school in her 
home on Sunday morn- 
ings for the instruction of 
neighborhood children. 
The precise date for this is 
unknown, but the number 
of attenders had so in- 
creased that the school was 
moved to the meeting 
house in 1820. When 
Abigail Anderson moved 
to Indiana, Allen U. 
Tomlinson became the 
leader. The attendance was 
around 200. The school 
began at eight o'clock in 
the morning and lasted 
Fanny O. Reynolds until ten-thirty, closing in 

time for the children to 
attend meeting for worship. About the same time Levi Coffin 
organized a Sunday morning school for Bible study at Deep River. 

In recent years a great renewal in Christian education in the 
yearly meeting was led by Alice Paige White of High Point and 
Pansy D. Shore of Pilot Mountain. Both of these able leaders served 
long terms as head of the Christian Education Committee. During 
their periods of service great progress was made in developing and 
broadening the scope of religious education. In 1923 Alice Paige 
White requested that the Bible School Committee of the yearly 


Notable Women Educators 

meeting be changed to the Board on Christian Education, a more 
comprehensive title. 

Ruth Day was appointed as yearly meeting Christian Educa- 
tion Secretary in 1947. She and Pansy Shore developed a series of 
leadership training con- 
ferences, with strong em- 
phasis upon both content 
and method in teaching 
the fundamental prin- 
ciples of Christian living. 
These two leaders, and 
others who worked with 
them, initiated a new era 
in Christian education. 
Small, inefficient Sunday 
Schools progressively be- 
came centers of Christian 

In this general period. 
Vacation Bible Schools 
came into being across the 
yearly meeting, with 
Pansy Shore and Ruth 
Day as overall leaders and 
supervisors. At the peak of this activity, schools generally lasted two 
weeks, with many community children attending. If one personal 
recollection might be included, Helen Binford of Guilford College 
came to Asheboro and stayed with us for two weeks, directing and 
teaching in our Bible School. The enrollment was around one 
hundred children that year, 1945. 

Now Vacation Bible Schools are taught by women and older 
girls, with only a few men assisting. As a matter of fact, most 


Alice Paige White 

Quaker Women of Carolina 

elementary teachers in the pub- 
lic schools are women. 

For two hundred years 
and more the Society 
of Friends rejected many forms 
of artistic expression, especially 
those having to do with har- 
mony in sound, as in instru- 
mental music and hymn sing- 
ing, also those having to do with 
the beauty of form and color as 
in painting. During the long 
Quietistic period, no hymns 
were sung to the glory of God; 
no artist took up palette and 
brush to capture the beauty of creation. Even in dress and in home 
appointments, life was plain, very plain. In this rejection of artistic 
truth and beauty it seems that Friends imposed upon themselves a 
privation which detracted much from the joy of abundant living. 

Early in the development of the Quaker movement there was 
a voice of protest. Margaret Fell Fox was unhappy with the 
unnecessary drabness being adopted in dress and in manner of 
living. In 1700, ten years after George Fox's death, she wrote these 
sad words: 

Friends say that we must look at no color, nor make 
anything that is changeable colors as the hills are, nor sell 
them nor wear them.« 

The years dragged on. Elizabeth Fry, a great spiritual leader in 

1 ■ 

^Margaret Fell Fox, Collected Works, 1710. Quoted in numerous Quaker 


Pansy Shore 

Notable Women Educators 

her day (1780-1 845), achieved for herself a great sense of freedom 
and hberation which allowed her to appreciate the beauty around 
her. She wrote: 

I should count among my blessings how much I am enabled 
to take pleasure in the various beauties of nature, flowers, 
etc. . . and what an entire liberty I feel to enjoy them. I look 
upon these things as sweet gifts, and the power to enjoy 
them as still sweeter.^ 

For the most part it has been women who have led the way in 
this area of progress. It is significant that the first person to sing a 
hymn in a Friends meeting in North Carolina was a woman. 

A letter written by David N. Hunt, a grandson of Nathan 
Hunt, contains this statement relative to something which hap- 
pened at Springfield: 

The only singing I ever heard in a Meeting was probably 
. . . between 1836 and 1840. A Methodist woman 
attended the meeting. . . . During a time of profound 
silence she sang a short and beautiftil hymn.^° 

In recent years three women, Dorothy Gilbert Thorne, 
Treva Mathis Dodd and Carole Edgerton Treadway, have 
taken the lead in the care and preservation of Quaker records. These 
priceless treasures, which date back to 1 680, are careftilly organized 
and kept in the North Carolina Historical Collection in the Library 
of Guilford College. William Wade Hinshaw initiated and fi- 
nanced the well known volumes of Quaker Genealogy, beginning 
with North Carolina,^ ^ but it was Laura Wotth who spent many 

^Quoted by Leonard Ken worthy in Quaker Leaders Speak, 55. 
•°SaraR. Haworth, Springfield 1775-1940, 17. 

^^Encyclopedia of American Quaker Genealogy, Vol. 1, North Carolina. 


Quaker Women of Carolina 

long months and years going from meeting to meeting painstak- 
ingly accumulating this information from local monthly meeting 
minutes. (At present most of this material, or a copy of it, has been 
deposited in the yearly meeting vault.) People come from many 
states, especially from the Midwest, to learn about their Quaker 
foreparents from our Historical Collection — the largest in the 
South, and the third largest in the country, surpassed only by those 
of Swarthmore and Haverford. 

Elizabeth Gray Vining, who wrote Windows for the Crown 
Prince and other great books, was not a native of North 
Carolina, but she spent six wonderful years in Chapel Hill where 
she met and married Morgan Vining. 


Concern for Human Values 

Among the very first women working for equal rights for 
women in America was Abigail Adams, wife of one of the 
Founding Fathers, John Adams. She was not a Quaker, but she used 
all her strength and persuasive power on John Adams to get a 
statement on women's rights included in the Declaration of 
Independence in 1776. She did not succeed.^ 

Many years later in 1 840 an antislavery convention was held in 
London. Two American women were there, Lucretia Mott, a 
Quaker, and Elizabeth Cady Stanton, not a Quaker. Both these 
women were denied seats merely because they were women. 
Angered, they determined to start a movement in America to secure 
equal rights. Out of their efforts came the first Women's Rights 
Convention, held in New York in 1848. 

Next came the National American Woman's Suffrage Associa- 
tion 1869. By 1875 Susan B. Anthony, a powerful leader in the 
movement, dared to draw up a proposed amendment to the 
^ Constitution of the United States giving women the right to vote. 
This amendment was introduced in Congress the following year — 
and every year thereafter for forty-five years without success. 

Susan B. Anthony was born in Massachusetts in a Quaker 
family who believed in the equality of women. It was natural that 
Quaker women should take the lead in the movement for women's 
rights, They had experience in taking part in public meetings and 

The Declaration of Independence affirms only the equality of white men. 

Quaker Women of Carolina 

had been taught to believe in their equality with men in the church 
and with God. 

After long years of struggle on the part of Woman Suffragists, 
the Congress of the United States finally submitted the proposition 
to the various states. It was ratified by three fourths of the states in 
1 920 and thus became the Nineteenth Amendment to the Consti- 
tution. It seems hard to believe now, but America was about two 
decades into the twentieth century before women could vote. 
Neither the Declaration of Independence in 1776 nor the Eman- 
cipation Proclamation of 1 863 had brought about this "inalienable 

Going back for a moment into an earlier period in Carolina 
history, we could note thatin theyear 1798 DavidWorth 
and Eunice Gardner were married in the Centre community. Both 
were Quakers whose parents had come from Nantucket in the early 
1770s. During the next few years two children were born. There 
was no doctor anywhere near, and both children died. 

One can imagine David and Eunice standing in their simple 
home, weeping in anguish. Both were thinking the same thought: 
Might it not be possible for David to go to Philadelphia and study 
medicine? Finally she said, "Would you go, David?" 

"Yes," he said. "I will get someone to manage the farm." With 
a small sweeping motion of his hand, he indicated the community: 
"They need a doctor. Friends believe that compassionate caring is 
a part of the Christian life." 

Thus began a husband-wife partnership of medical practice in 
which Eunice participated ftilly. She studied and worked with 
David, caring for the people who came from far and near. So many 
came that some had to lie out in the cold or in the heat of summer, 
often in wagons, waiting their turn for medical help. To remedy 
this situation a row of cabins was built where patients could wait in 


Concern for Human Values 

some comfort, cared for by workers under Worth supervision. This 
has been called the first "hospital" in North Carolina. Eunice was 
the first intern. 

In the midst of caring for the sick, Eunice was the mother of ten 
more children, the oldest of whom was born in 1802. His name: 
Jonathan Worth, Governor of North Carolina during the trying 
days of Reconstruction following the Civil War. The name of 
Eunice Worth does not occur in history books, but she is the 
heroine of this story^. How did she manage to share so much with 
her children, while tending the sick who need her skillful, compas- 
sionate care? 

The Worths had to employ lots of workers, but they would not 
use slave labor. They believed in the sacredness of human life, and 
the basic equality of all God's children. They were demonstrating 
the practical application of Christian social concerns in the field of 
medicine.^ A more recent example of husband-wife cooperation in 
community medical service was that of Dr. Charles C. Hubbard 
and Frances Porter Hubbard in the Science Hill community during 
the first half of the present century. 

It seems hard to believe now, but the institution of human 
slavery lay heavy on the land for the first two hundred years 
of Quaker life in the South. This long and complicated story does 
not fit into this narrative, other than to say that in the mid-1 800s 
Quaker women were active in the operation of the Underground 
Railroad, which was an unofficial group of concerned persons who 
were working together in assisting runaway slaves to make their way 
northward toward freedom. Two of the most outstanding of these 
"operators" were Alethea Coffin and Delphina Mendenhall. (The 

^Barron Mills, The Randolph Guide, August 5, 1992. 


Quaker Women of Carolina 

one vehicle left in North Carolina used to transport slaves to free 
territory beft)re the Civil War is a wagon with a false bottom, now 
in possession of the Historic Jamestown Society. This wagon was 
once the property of Joshua and Abigail Stanley, of the Centre 
community, later owned by Edgar and Hazel Murrow. Stacy and 
Ruth Hocket helped make it available for display at Jamestown.) 

Alethea Coffin was born in 1798 in the area which is now 
Greensboro. Little is known of her until she married Vestal Coffin 
and joined the Society of Friends. Together they developed the idea 
of an "underground railroad" in 1819. Alethea assisted him in 
getting the process into action. When Vestal Coffin died, she took 
his place in operating it. This brave and resourceful woman may 
have personally conducted some of the slaves to safety before her 
sons were old enough to help make the Coffin home the primary 
depot of the "railroad" in the New Garden community. 

Delphina Gardner Mendenhall was born in the Cane Creek 
community in 1 8 1 5. Although she married one of the largest slave- 
holders in Guilford County (at Jamestown), she worked actively 
with the Underground Railroad. She assisted most of the Mendenhall 
slaves to obtain their freedom before the end of the Civil War. Her 
husband, George Mendenhall, had inherited a large number of 
slaves from his first wife. This created a great problem. To George 
Mendenhall's credit it should be stated that he treated the slaves 
well and trained them in productive skills and crafts. When the 
slaves were well-trained and able to make it on their own, he and 
Delphina escorted many of them to freedom, staying with them 
until they were well settled in a new location. 

George Mendenhall was drowned in the flooded Uwharrie 
River in Asheboro when returning from a court session in I860. 
Delphina was left to handle matters by herself George had freed all 
his remaining slaves in his will, but one of his sons felt strongly that 


Concern for Human Values 

the slaves should belong to him. Delphina started North with a 
group of them but was stopped before reaching the Ohio River. All 
were returned to the Mendenhall plantation.^ 

During the Civil War Delphina rendered whatever service she 
could to people who were in desperate need. She herself was 
reduced to a near poverty level. She still continued to attend Deep 
River Meeting regularly, using a simple horse and buggy. In her 
declining years she gave all assistance she could to the Baltimore 
Association which had come to the aid of Southern Friends.^ 

Today, more than a hundred years later, too little is known 
about the suffering, the courage and the heroism of Carolina 
Quaker women during the Civil War. A great deal has been written 
about what the men endured but little about the trauma which 
came to the wives and others of these men. For example, the book 
Southern Heroes by Fernando Cartland mentions the cruel suffering 
endured by the women only occasionally. All of these heroic 
individuals are gone now and cannot tell their own stories. To 
compensate in a very small way for this situation, the book, Mary 
Barker Hinshaw, was written.^ Fortunately, there was enough 
overlapping of lives and enough written records available to make 
the recounting of this story possible. Mary Barker Hinshaw of the 
Holly Spring Meeting, humble and unassuming person that she 
was, never thought of herself as personifying the heroic courage of 
Quakers at their best in times of testing and suffering, but she and 
the many other Quaker women of the South deserve a place of 
honor in the annals of history. 

^The Mendenhall house is now restored as a historic museum. 

'^In his Autobiography, Allen Jay devotes a full chapter to the work of 
Delphina Mendenhall, 233. 

^Seth B. Hinshaw, Mary Barker Hinshaw, Quaker. Greensboro: North 
Carohna Friends Historical Society and Friends United Press, 1982. 


Quaker Women of Carolina 

Miriam Levering 

As to Quakers in the Civil War period, Mary Mendenhall 
Hobbs wrote these descriptive statements: 

We had been a little band of believers in peace in the 
midst of w^ar, of antislavery abolitionists in the heart of 
slave territory, of heart and minds almost to a unit loyal 
to the Union in the midst of secession. The vv^ay had not 
been strewn with flowers. Espionage and a degree of 
persecution had drawn us closer together. . . . Almost 
everything was gone except the bare hills, the abundant 
forests and ourselves. . . . Even thus we had a goodly 
heritage, and under the nurture of some of the noblest 
men who ever blessed God's earth, we were enabled to 

^Quoted by Allen Jay, 168. 


Concern for Human Values 

rise from the dust and discouragement of the past and set 
our faces toward the rising sun.^ 

During the second half of the twentieth century Miriam 
Levering has been unsurpassed in the amount of time 
and energy expended in the cause ofpeace and justice. Although her 
home was across the Virginia line, she was a member of the Mount 
Airy Meeting, North Carolina. In the midst of her most active life 
she and Sam Levering worked for ten strenuous years in promoting 
the Law of the Sea Conference. This treaty will benefit all mankind, 
especially the smaller land-bound nations of the world. What an 
inspiration her life has been and will continue to be! The life story 
of Sam and Miriam Levering is now available in book form.^ 

Women were leaders in the great Temperance Movement 
of the late 1 800s and early 1900s. As a matter of interest 
it could be noted that the first great "Sit-in" occurred in Whittier, 
California, for a most unusual reason, according to Jessamyn 
West.^ When certain men attempted to open a saloon, Quaker 
women promptly occupied the place, not to be served themselves, 
but to see to it that others were not served. They just sat, knitting, 
"making it impossible for men of 1888 to subject females to the 
coarse sight of men pouring alcoholic drinks down their gullets." 
For forty years no tavern was licensed in Whittier. 

When the North Carolina Women's Christian Temperance 
Union met in Greensboro in 1884, Mary C. Woody of New 
Garden was elected president. She led the state organization for ten 
years, traveling, preaching and lecturing. Frances E. Willard was 

^Samuel R. Levering, Quaker Peacemakers, Sam and Miriam Levering. 
Ararat, VA: Levering Fruits, Inc., 1993. 

^Charles W. Cooper, Whittier: Independent College in California. Los 
Angeles: Ward Ritchie Press, 1967. 


Quaker Women of Carolina 

Mary Chawner Woody, ca. 1885 

president of the National Union during this time, and Mary C. 
Woody worked with her as vice president. They became close 
friends. Since women could not vote, they used the WCTU to gain 
the public voice which was denied them as individuals. They 
worked for many causes such as prison reform, woman suffrage, 
equal pay and sexual morality. They felt that the home and the 
family were in jeopardy and that mothers had a great responsibility 
in maintaining high moral standards. 

In his History of North Carolina, Samuel A. Ashe wrote: 

Among the foremost of those who devoted themselves to 
the elevation and benefit of women was Mary C. Woody, 
who for many years was President of the Womans 
Christian Temperance Union.^ 

Volume II, 1925, 1287. 


Concern for Human Values 

Co-workers in the WCTU among North Carolina Friends 
were Mary Cartland, Laura Winston, Mary Petty, Frances Doak, 
Mary Stanley Peele, Rhoda Worth and a host of others. They had 
a deep concern to see the yearly meeting grow, both in terms of 
numbers and in terms of social concerns. 

It is noteworthy that the great focus of concern for these leaders 
was the Christian family. With prophetic insight they seemed to 
foresee the perils that the twenti- 
eth century would bring to the 
Christian home, especially to 
mothers. Of course no one could 
fully foresee the revolutionary 
changes which would come about 
in the following decades, but they 
knew that the Church depends 
upon Christian homes for its ex- 
istence. They knew that whatever 
threatens the stability of the home 
threatens the Church. 

Friends may move slowly, but 
they do move. Almost three hundred years after the visits of 
William Edmondson and George Fox to Carolina in 1672, the 
yearly meeting appointed a woman clerk, Ruth Reynolds Hockett, 
in 1970. As expected, she rendered excellent service in a difficult 
period. Since that time, Sarah Pate Wilson of Winston-Salem 
served a term as clerk, 1982-1987. It might be further noted that 
Sarah Pate Wilson was clerk of Friends United Meeting, 1990- 
1993. Nancy Reece Holt of Deep Creek Meeting is now clerk of our 
yearly meeting. 

Sara Richardson Haworth of Springfield Meeting was elected 
Mother of the Year in the state of North Carolina in 1965. A few 
years later her daughter, Eldora Haworth Terrell was named for the 


Sara Richardson Haworth 

Quaker Women of Carolina 

same high honor, probably the only instance of this kind in the 

A group picture of the assembled yearly meeting in 1 97 1 shows 
a preponderance of women in attendance. Three women sat at the 
clerk's desk that year, plus a young man who appeared at the close 
of each session to make announcements. This picture and hundreds 
of others from across the yearly meeting are in Carolina Quakers, a 
pictorial history, published in commemoration of the coming of 
William Edmundson and George Fox in 1672. (Only a few copies 
of this valuable book remain for sale in the yearly meeting office.) 

In a much lighter vein, it could be noted that for two hundred 
years or so Quaker women could wear only dark, somber clothes — 
a bit drab, one might say: no bright colors, no lace, no frills, no 
cosmetics. Are not these things (within the bounds of good taste) 
the inalienable right of the feminine world? All was not lost, 
however. Radiant smiles and lovely countenances were not entirely 
hidden. And who can say? Maybe charming smiles were enhanced 
by somber gray surroundings. 

The term "liberated" as applied to Quaker women can mean 
many things. In the highest, best sense of the word, it is far more 
than something which can be bestowed by a benevolent govern- 
ment, or even by an official pronouncement by a duly constituted 
body of Friends, meeting in solemn session. Liberation is in a large 
measure a personal achievement. One sprightly modern young 
Friend said, "I have never felt any other way!" Maybe she was 
speaking for all her contemporaries in a progressive Society of 

Jesus said, "The Truth shall make you free!" 

^ • . ' . 1 • ■ ■ 

-- . ( ' ■ 


Leaders in Outreach 

Two remarkable Quaker women initiated the movement 
which was destined to bring the long period of Quaker 
Quietism to an end: Mary Dudley of England and Rebecca Jones 
of Philadelphia (early 1800s). Both preached with great evangelistic 
fervor, stressing the human need for Divine Grace. A tremendous 
new orientation toward energetic outreach occurred. It was a 
turning point in Quaker doctrine and practice.^ 

In keeping with this new evangelistic emphasis, Mary Moon 
(Meredith), who came to North Carolina from Indiana in 1877, 
was at the forefront of the Revival Movement. Alphaeus Briggs said 
of her, "Mary Moon was of the advanced type of evangelist 
common in the West. . . . The evident results of her meetings soon 
convinced many that it was of the Lord."^ To her may be ascribed 
much of the credit for the high level which the movement assumed 
in North Carolina. The excesses of earlier years in the West were not 
repeated. Mary Moon was a powerful and persuasive preacher and 
was regarded by many as one of the greatest evangelists of her day. 
When she came to North Carolina and held a series of services in 
Winston-Salem in a Methodist Church (no Friends meeting had 
been organized there), she "stirred North Carolina as never before." 
Newspaper reports stated that "thousands" came to hear her. Since 

^Rufus M.Jones, Later Periods of Quakerism. London: Macmillan, 1921, 


^ Alphaeus Briggs, "A History of North CaroUna Yearly Meeting," unpub- 
lished manuscript. Friends Historical Collection. 

Quaker Women of Carolina 

Friends generally were not at that time in accord with her efforts, 
it has been stated that across the state she "added a thousand 
members to the Methodist Church." This may seem questionable 
until one examines a collection of newspaper accounts assembled 
by her daughter, Nellie Moon Taylor. Incidentally, Science Hill 
Meeting traces its beginning to the time when Mary Moon 
preached in a school house near the village of Farmer, Randolph 
County, 1892. 

Mary Moon's preaching in North Carolina caused a great 
amount of public controversy. In newspapers from Virginia to 
South Carolina, editorials and letters to the editor took up the 
question of whether it was right for women to preach. Some 
individuals expressed outrage; others expressed the hope that "the 
citizens will extend to her a Christian welcome." 

Wonderful things happen when a capable, dedicated 
person with a strong Quaker concern is in the right 
place at the right time. In 1 890 and before, Rhoda Macy Worth of 
Greensboro began gathering children into her home for Bible 
instruction. There was no Friends meeting in Greensboro, al- 
though it was a fast-growing city. The number of children in- 
creased until it seemed right to begin a regular Sunday School. The 
next step was a Friends meeting. In brief, Greensboro Monthly 
Meeting traces its beginning to the capable leadership of Rhoda 
Macy Worth. It might be added that she also assisted in the early 
development of Spring Garden Meeting. 

The first Quakers came to America because they had a 
powerful concern to bear witness to the Truth. They were 
missionaries in the highest sense of the word. During the long 
Quietistic period this zeal for missionary outreach was almost lost. 
In the second half of the nineteenth century a new awakening 
occurred. The North Carolina Yearly Meeting Minutes of 1873 


Leaders in Outreach 

state: "The subject of Missionary endeavor was introduced to us at 
this time. ..." In response, a Missionary Board was appointed 
which reported the following year: 

There is an extensive field for Christian labor within the 

limits and on the borders of our Society We feel that 

the work has only been commenced. ... 

Obviously this was home missions; but 
the vision soon began to broaden and 
to become more extensive. 

In Indiana, women's mission- 
ary societies were being formed in 
other denominations. Why not 
among Friends? In the winter of 
1881, Eliza Clark Armstrong Cox 
(born in the Cane Creek commu- 
nity of North Carolina) wrote: 

"I found myself suddenly in 
the grip of a beautiful vision. Here 
was a field of operation for Friends 
hitherto unoccupied. A way should be 
opened through which our members 
could do missionary work under our 
own management. ... I undertook to 

see what could be done. A letter was written to my friend Jemima 
A. Taylor . . . telling her of my convictions and asking her 
cooperation in organizing our women for this line of work."^ 

Eliza Clark Armstrong Cox goes on to say that her friend had 
the same concern and had formed a Woman's Foreign Missionary 

Eliza Armstrong Cox 

^Eliza A. Cox, Looking Back Over the Trail. Richmond, IN: Woman's 
Missionary Union, 1927. 


Quaker Women of Carolina 

Society in her own meeting. By yearly meeting time in September 
eight local societies had been formed in Indiana. A yearly meeting 
organization was formed without even going through the formality 
of conferring with the men for consent and approval. "For once we 
did something all by ourselves!" To this shotdd be added: "The men 
became enthusiastic and commended most heartily the step taken. 

North Carolina Friends Women were quick to follow the lead. 
The first local Woman's Missionary Society met at New Garden in 
1885 with four persons present: Mary S. Peele, Mary C. Woody, 
Debra Parker and Sarah Morris. The second group to organize was 
Piney Woods, January 2, 1 886, with Lizzie White as president. A 
yearly meeting organization, the Woman's Foreign Missionary 
Association, was formed soon after, "To spread the gospel . . . and 
especially for the elevation of women in the yearly meeting." The 
work grew, and before the end of the year there were 1 87 members. 
Sarah E. Winslow of Back Creek was made president and Alice R. 
King of Springfield secretary. 

The first national gathering of Friends women was at India- 
napolis in 1888. Mary Stanley Peele was the North Carolina 

The deep spiritual dedication of these pioneering souls was 
beautifiiUy expressed by Eliza A. Cox: 

This first conference met . . . and adjourned under a most 
precious ownership of the Holy Spirit, and the dearest 
ties of Christian fellowship which obtains until this day.^ 

In 19 17 the name was changed to Woman's Missionary Union. 
Again in 1948 the name was changed to United Society of Friends 

^Ibid. 17. 


Leaders in Outreach 

North Carolina USFW women, 1939. (L-R): Lola McCamp bell, 
Alice Walters, Laura Davis, Lutie Woody, Ethel Payne, Savilla Johnson. 

Women — to indicate the broader scope of work. It is now 
international (USFWI). 

The enormous amount of work this Society has done in North 
CaroHna is too great to be reviewed here. It was comprehensively 
^ presented in the small book, Growth, Development, Service Unlim- 
ited, published in 1981 as a part of the Centennial Celebration. 
Another source of information is the pictorial history of the North 
Carolina Yearly Meeting, Carolina Quakers, mentioned earlier, 
page 51. 

One of the first comprehensive books about Quaker mission- 
ary activity was written by Christina H. Jones, American Friends in 
World Missions. She came to this conclusion: 

Today, as in the past, the women of the Society of 
Friends are in large measure responsible for the mission- 


Quaker Women of Carolina 

ary program of the Church. . . . They have shown that 
Christians can be united in service in a common cause in 
the Kingdom of Jesus Christ.^ 

Friends do not have patron saints, but if one could be named 
by the United Society of Friends Women, it might well be Eliza 
Clark Armstrong Cox. Her heartfelt concern was stated in this way: 

Fie who gave us the Great Commission — gave us no rest 
until we, too, were side by side and hand in hand with all 
other Christian people. 

Her prayer for the USFW was this: "Lord, keep us growing." 

In missionary outreach, some husband-wife teams have been 
of great significance. For example, Eli and Sybil Jones spent 
a great part of their lifetime traveling, and thus opening the way for 
missionary activity for Friends. They were among the first Ameri- 
can Friends to go on a foreign missionary journey. They first went 
to Liberia, West Africa. One special point of interest is that Sybil 
Jones was the one who first had the burden to go; Eli felt that it was 
his duty to accompany her. They sailed from Baltimore in July 
185L This journey was followed by many more. In 1867 they 
traveled to Palestine, and, when in Ramallah near Jerusalem, they 
saw the need for a school for girls. This was the beginning of the 
Friends Girls School, the one North Carolina Women help support 
now. Their story is eloquently told by a nephew, Rufus Jones, in the 
book, Eli and Sybil Jones, Their Life and WorkJ 

Another husband-wife team of the 1800s was Samuel and 
Gulielma Purdie. When the Baltimore Association began 

^Brethren Publishing House, 1946, 79. 
^Philadelphia. Porter & Coates, 1887. 


^ . Leaders in Outreach 

work in North Carohna after the Civil War, Samuel came to North 
CaroHna from New York to teach school. While teaching at Back 
Creek, he married Gulielma Hoover, of the community. Together 
they developed a strong concern for missionary work in Mexico. 
Samuel learned Spanish from a miner who had moved into the 
community. Hearing that Friends in Indiana had formed a Foreign 
Missionary Association, he and Gulielma went to Indiana in 1871 
and offered themselves for work in Mexico. They were accepted 
and did a great work there for manyyears. Thus it was that members 
of the Back Creek Meeting became the first missionaries to be sent 
abroad by American Friends. 

As to pastoral ministers in recent years, not nearly as many 
women have appeared as could be desired. The ones who 
have served have done so with great dedication and efficiency. In an 
address given at the trien- 
nial sessions of the Friends 
United Meeting in 1967, 
titled "Gifts of Women in 
Ministry," Viola Britt 
pointed out that these 
women were quite differ- 
ent from each other in all 
respects except one: their 
faithfijlness and obedience 
to their calling. 

The first pastoral work 
by women in North Caro- 
lina was a volunteer minis- 
try of loving concern. 
These dedicated individu- Lela Sills Garner 

als were not called pastors, for this term had not yet come into 
acceptable use. A complete list of early women ministers cannot be 


Quaker Women of Carolina 

given here, but some typical individuals of the past generation were 
Lottie Robertson of Surry Quarter, Rhodema Wright of Western 
Quarter, Elizabeth White and Bertha Smith White of Eastern 
Quarter. In Yadkin Quarter Lucy Vestal served before the days of 
easy transportation, and she often walked to nearby meetings. She 
exercised a ministry of Christian love for more than fifty years. 
Without her work it is clear that some of the meetings of the area 
would not have survived. She rendered pastoral care to all the 
people she could reach. So also did Ann Mendenhall Benbow, 
whose physician husband 
followed her to Yadkin 
County where she rendered 
similar pastoral service, and 
thus fulfilled the request of 
the yearly meeting and her 
own spiritual leading.^ 
Other noteworthy pasto- 
ral-evangelists were 
Perchie Key, Milner Angel 
Cox, Lela Sills Garner and 
Cora Lee Johnson. 

Clara I. Cox of 
High Point 
stands out as an unsur- 
passed example of dedi- Clara L Cox 
cated service in helping to 

improve the living conditions of the unfortunate poor. Born and 
reared in the affluent home of J. Elwood Cox, she could have lived 
in ease and luxury. Instead she devoted her life to promoting social 
and civic progress in the High Point area. She was organizer and 

^Francis C. Anscombe, I have Called You Friends, 336. 


Leaders in Outreach 

twice president of the North Carolina Federation of Women's 
Clubs and first president of the Business and Professional Women's 
Club. Her work included the Red Cross, the YWCA and the 
WCTU. She was especially known for her interracial activities, 
giving a great amount of time and effort to improving the lot of 
blacks in the city. When a low-income housing project was 
constructed in High Point, it was named the Clara I. Cox Apart- 
ments. Sara R. Haworth once said: "Her passion was for the very 
poor, who had no one else to help them." She seemed to crowd the 
work of many lifetimes into one. 

Early in life she felt a call to the ministry, and in the midst of 
all her social service activities she served as minister of the Spring- 
field Meeting from the beginning of World War I until her death 
in 1 940. Even in her last illness she was still concerned for the needy 
whom she could help no longer. 

A further word about the revival movement should be 
added here. Following the Civil War, great doors of 
opportunity were opened to Friends, and the revival movement 
brought large numbers of people into local meetings. Many of these 
had little or no Friends background. They wanted singing, evange- 
listic preaching and other innovations which older Friends op- 
posed, fearing it was a drift toward the pastoral system. At any rate, 
the yearly meeting appointed its first Evangelistic Committee in 
1882, which reported "gratifying results." 

Mary C. Woody was appointed secretary of this committee. 
She served in this capacity at different times during the next forty 
years, "always with the greatest satisfaction" according to Alphaeus 
Briggs in his "History of North Carolina Yearly Meeting."^ 

^ Briggs, "A History of North Carolina Yearly Meeting," unpublished 
manuscript. Friends Historical Collection. (For a fuller account of the Hfe of 
Mary C. Woody, see Pioneers in Quaker Education, Mary Edith Hinshaw, 1 992.) 


Quaker Women of Carolina 

Mary C. Woody was doing the work of an evangelistic super- 
intendent before the yearly meeting officially appointed one. She 
visited meeting in all parts of the state, and assisted in organizing 
new ones. In 1904 the Minutes list her as the first Superintendent 
of Evangelism, along with this statement: "Mary C. Woody gave us 
such a report of the work as we have never had." She did not herself 
hold revival meetings, but rather participated in holding General 

Meetings over the state. The pur- 
pose of these was to revive the 
spiritual life of local meetings. 

At these General Meetings 
there was prayer and the exposi- 
tion of the Quaker faith, which 
"proved to be uplifting and con- 
structive." These three or four day 
>^1K ita^ iiSP^ % meetings became increasingly 

evangelistic, according to the great 
spiritual needs encountered in vari- 
ous communities. 

Eva Miles Newlin, born in 
Oregon to a Quaker family, mar- 
ried Algie I. Newlin, professor of 
history at Guilford College. She 
was active in outreach representing the North Carolina Yearly 
Meeting on the Mission Board of the Friends United Meeting, as 
well as the National United Society of Friends Women. She was a 
faithful member of the Friends World Committee for Consulta- 
tion. She worked many, many hours as chairwoman of the commit- 
tee planning the "visiting weekend" for the Friends World Confer- 
ence of 1967 (meeting at Guilford College) when over eight 
hundred Friends from all over the world enjoyed hospitality in 
North Carolina Quaker homes. 

Eva Miles Newlin 



Into A New Era 

Carolina Quaker women, and Quaker women generally, 
have an illustrious past, which should serve as a challenge 
to a great future. In 1 971 Harvard University published a fascinat- 
ing study of notable American women. ^ From this and other 
sources one can glean some interesting statistics, a few of which 
might be of interest here. 

The first and only woman's face to appear on an American coin 
is that of Susan B. Anthony, a birthright Quaker. The first woman 
to earn a Ph.D. degree in America was a Quaker, Helen Magill 
White. So also was the first woman millionaire, Lydia E. Pinkham. 
Out of the first eight women physicians, five were Quakers. 
Recendy Edwin Bronner, eminent Quaker historian of Haverford 
College, stated that the number of prominent Quaker women in 
America has been about one hundred times the expected nimiber 
according to percentage of population.^ What an amazing fact! 

Statistics indicate that Quaker women as compared to others 
have shown several distinctive differences. They have tended to 
experience more stable marriages, with a higher level of partnership 
within the home. They have had more children, with a closer bond 
between the generations. Their influence within the Society of 
Friends has been considerably greater than that of non-Quaker 
women in their churches. They have participated more fully in the 

Dictionary of Notable American Women, 1607—1950. 

^From "A Comparative Study of Quaker Women." Copy of manuscript in 
Friends Historical Collection, Guilford College. 

Quaker Women of Carolina 

educational process. They have led more public lives, speaking and 
traveling more w^idely.^ Through the years Friends have had a 
resource of leadership w^hich has been great indeed. 

Today there are more women in the various professions than 
ever before. While this may be very good indeed, the other half of 
the picture is that the financial stress of our times is such that a 
majority of mothers have to w^ork outside the home. This means 
that a number of "latchkey" children come home afi:er school to an 
empty house. No one can measure the long-term adverse effects 
this may have. 

Without detracting from the value of independent careers for 
women, it could be noted again that motherhood is still the highest 
calling and privilege which may come to any individual, in any 
society, in any era of history. As one example outside Friends, the 
Methodist Church would not have originated as it did without the 
powerful influence of a great mother, Susannah Wesley. 

Is anyone ever tempted to think that all the truly great 
spiritual leaders lived long ago? There is strong reason to 
believe that some of the most gifted and capable leaders of our three 
centuries are living and working today — who need wholehearted 
support in their Christian service. 

Great crisis situations call for heroic response, as has been seen 
in the lives of those who lived in centuries past. More than one crisis 
is facing Quakers today, but one of the greatest is the terrible 
deterioration of home life in our country. The statement has been 
made that the break down of the American home is the most 
significant development of the second half of the twentieth cen- 
tury. This alarming situation affects everyone some way. Perhaps 

^Paula S. Jordan, Women of Guilford. Greensboro, NC: Greensboro Print- 
ing Company, 1979. 


Into A New Era 

one individual cannot change society, but each person has the 
privilege and the opportunity to make one home a lovely place to 
live. Quaker women working together can make a difference. 
Building Christian homes is a primary concern for every present- 
day Friend. 



North Carolina Presidents 


Woman's Missionary Union 


United Society of Friends Women 

Sarah E. W. Winslow, 
first president 
Mary Ann Stanley 

Alice Paige White 
Anna E. Williams 
Ada Lee Stanley 
Elizabeth Weaver 
Evelyn Haworth 
Eva Terrell Woody 
Inez -Beebe Perisho 
Alice Walters 
Elizabeth Weaver 
Ethel W.Payne 
Savilla Johnson - 
Rosa Glisson 

1946 .... Pansy Shore 
1949....Lutie A. Woody 
1952 .... Selma Mackie 
1955 .... JanettaHill 
1959 .... Ruth R. Hockett 
1962 .... Esta B. Haworth 
1965 .... Anne S. Shope 
1968 .... Marian Murchison 
1971 .... Linda M. Trent 
1974 .... Mary Marshall Lindley 
1977 .... Anna Lee Spry 
1981 .... Eugenia Perkins 
1984 ....Jane Ott Ballus 
1987 .... Cheryl Robertson 
1990.... Vera York 
1993.... Mary Ellen Pike, 
present president 

Works Cited 

Anscombe, Francis C. / Have Called You Friends. Boston: The 
Christopher Press, 1958. 

Ashe, Samuel A. History of North Carolina, Vol. II. Raleigh: 
Edwards & Broughten, 1925. 

Bacon, Margaret W. As the Way Opens, The Story of Quaker Women 
in America. Richmond, IN: Friends United Press, 1980. 

Coates, Albert. By Her Own Bootstraps. Chapel Hill: University of 
North Carolina Press, 1975. 

Cooper, Charles W. Whittier: Independent College in California. 
Los Angeles: Ward Ritchie Press, 1967. 

Cox, Eliza Armstrong. Looking Back Over the Trail Richmond. IN: 
Woman's Missionary Union, 1927. 

Gilbert, Dorothy. Guilford a Quaker College. Greensboro, NC: 
Guilford College, 1937. 

Hinshaw, Mary E. and Ruth R Hockett. Growth Unlimited. 
Greensboro, NC: The United Society of Friends Women, 
1981. , 

Hinshaw, Mary E. Pioneers in Quaker Education. Greensboro: 
North Carolina Friends Historical Society, North Carolina 
Yearly Meeting, 1992. 

Hinshaw, Seth and Mary E., eds. Carolina Quakers. Greensboro: 
North Carolina Yearly Meeting, 1972. 

Hinshaw, Seth B. The Carolina Quaker Experience. Greensboro: 
North Carolina Yearly Meeting, North Carolina Friends His- 
torical Society, 1984. 

Quaker Women of Carolina 

Hinshaw, Seth B. Mary Barker Hinshaw, Quaker. Greensboro: 
North Carolina Friends Historical Society, and Friends United 
Press, 1982. 

Jay, Allen. Autobiography. Philadelphia: John C. Winston Com- 
pany, 1910. 

]ontSyC\\nsxm2iV{.Arrierican Friends in World Mission. Richmond, 
IN: Brethren Press, 1946. 

Jones, Rufiis M. Later Periods of Quakerism. London: Macmillan, 

Jordan, Paula S. Women of Guilford. Greensboro, NC: Greensboro 
Printing Company, 1979. 

Kenworthy, Leonard. Nine Contemporary Quaker Women Speak. 
Kennett Square, PA: Quaker Publications, 1992. 

Kenworthy, Leonard. Quakerism. Dublin, IN: Prinit Press, 1981. 

Klain, Zora. Quaker Contributions to Education in North Carolina. 
University of Pennsylvania, Doctoral Dissertation, 1924. 

Levering, Samuel R. Quaker Peacemakers, Sam and Miriam Lever- 
ing. Ararat, VA: Levering Fruits, Inc., 1993. 

New^lin, Algie I. The Battle of New Garden. Greensboro: North 
Carolina Friends Historical Society, 1977. 

Newlin, Algiel. Charity Cook, A Liberated Woman. Richmond, IN: 
Friends United Press, 1981. 

Nicholson, Frederick J. Quakers and the Arts. London: Henry Burt 
& Son, 1968. 

Phillips, Catharine. Memoirs, London: J. Phillips & Son, 1797. 

Russell, Elbert. The History of Quakerism. Nev^ York: Macmillan, 

White, Ethel. Bear His Mild Yoke. New York: Abingdon, 1966. 



Adams, Abigail 43 
Adams, John 43 
Anderson, Abigail 38 
Ann Austin 16 
Anne the Huntress 21, 22 
Anthony, Susan B. 43, 63 
Ashe, Samuel A. 50 
Atwood, Ann 1 9 
Austin, Ann 15, 16 


Bacon, Margaret H. 11 

Baltimore Association 58 

Barclay, Robert 13 

Battle of Guilford Court House 25 

Benbow, Ann Mendenhall 60 

Binford, Helen (Photo) 36 

Binford, Helen T. 37, 39 

Board on Christian Education 39 

Briggs, Alphaeus 53 

Britt, Viola 59 

Bronner, Edwin 63 

Cook, Charity Wright 22,23,24 
Cook, Isaac 22 
Cornell, Catharine 31 
Cox, Clara I. 61 

Cox, Eliza Armstrong (Photo) 55 
Cox, Eliza Clark Armstrong 55, 56, 

Cox, Elizabeth 34 
Cox, J. Elwood 60 
Cox, Jonathan 34 
Cox, Milner Angel 60 


Davis, Laura (Photo) 57 
Davis, Margaret 30 
Day, Rudi 39 
Dixon, Eula 37 
Dixon, Eula (Photo) 37 
Doak, Frances 50 
Dodd, Treva Mathis 41 
Dudley, Mary 53 
Dyer, Mary 16 

Cartland, Fernando 47 
Cardand, Mary 50 
Cecil, Sarah (Photo) 2 
Clark, Asenath Hunt 27, 31 
Clark, Dougan 27, 31 
Coffin, Addison 22, 31 
Coffin, Alediea 31, 46 
Coffin, Alethea (Photo) 32 
Coffin, Levi 38 
Coffin, Vestal 46 

Edmondson, WiUiam 51 
Evangelistic Committee 61 

Female Seminary Academy 30 

Fisher, Mary 1 5 

Florence Female Academy 30 

Fox, George 11, 12, 13, 29, 40, 51 

Fox, Margaret Fell 13, 40 

Friends Girls School in Ramallah 58 

Quaker Women of Carolina 

Friends World Committee for 

Consultation 62 
Fry, Elizabeth 15, 40 

Gardner, Eunice 44 
Gardner, Penelope 30 
Garner, Lela Sills 60 
Garner, Lela Sills (Photo) 59 " 
General Comwallis 25 
General Greene 25 
Gilbert, Dorothy (Thorne) 21 
Girls Aid Committee 36 
Greensboro Normal School 36 
Guilford College 34, 37 


Hackney, Priscilla B. 31 
Harris, Elizabeth 15 
Haworth, Sara Richardson 51, 61 
Hinshaw, CordeUa Cox 37 
Hinshaw, Mary Barker 47 
Hinshaw, William Wade 41 
Hobbs, Lois Ann 37 
Hobbs, Mary Mendenhall 25, 31, 

34, 36, 37, 48 
Hobbs, Mary Mendenhall (Photo) 


Hockett, Stacy 46 
Hockett, Ruth (Photo) 2 
Hockett, Ruth Reynolds 46, 51 
HoUingworth, Isaac 23 
Holt, Nancy Reece 51 
Hooten, Elizabeth 15 
Hubbard, Charles C. 45 
Hubbard, Frances Porter 45 
Hunt, David N. 41 
Hunt, Nancy 31 
Hunt, Nathan 27, 31, 41 
Hymn singing 40 

Instrumental music 40 


Jay, Allen 33, 47 
Jenkins, James 23 
Jessup, Ann 25, 26, 27 
Jess up, Thomas 25 
Johnson, Cora Lee 60 
Johnson, Savilla (Photo) 57 
Jones, Christina H. 57 
Jones, Eli 58 
Jones, Rebecca 53 
Jones, Rufus 58 
Jones, Sybil 58 


Key, Perchie 60 
King, Alice R. 56 
King Charles II 19 
Klain, Zora 35 
Knight, E. W. 35 

Law of the Sea Conference 49 
Levering, Miriam 48, 49 
Levering, Miriam (Photo) 48 
Levering, Sam 49 
Lung'aho, Leah (Photo) 2 


Mary Henley's School 30 
Mary Hobbs Hall 36 
McCampbell, Lola (Photo) 57 
Mclver, Charles D. 36 
Mendenhall, Abigail 30 
Mendenhall, Delphina Gardner 46 
Mendenhall, George 46 



Mendenhall, Judith Gardner 25, 30 
Mendenhall, Mary E. 31 
Mendenhall, Nereus 31,34 
Mendenhall, Oriana 34 
Mendenhall, Richard 30 
Meredith, Mary Moon 53 
Migrations of Friends 19 
Milner, Ernestine C. 37 
Mission Board of the Friends United 

Meeting 62 
Missionary Board 55 
Moore, Joseph 35 
Morison, Dameris 20 
Morris, Sarah 56 
Mott, Lucretia 43 
Murrow, Edgar 46 
Murrow, Hazel 46 


National American Woman's 
Suffrage Association 43 

National United Society of Friends 
Women 62 

New Garden Boarding School 30, 

New Garden Cemetery 25 

New Garden Hall 36 

Newhn, Algie 1. 62 

Newhn, Eva Miles 62 

Nicholson, Christopher 19 

Normal Schools 35 

North Carolina Historical Collec- 
tion 41 

North Carolina Women's Christian 
Temperance Union 49 

Parker, Debra 56 
Payne, Dolley 28 
Payne, Ethel (Photo) 57 

Peck, Harriet 31 

Peele, Mary Stanley 50, 56 

Peele, Mary Stanley (Photo) 35 

Penn, William 19 

Petty, Mary M. 36, 50 

Phillips, Catharine 17 

Phillips, Henry 19 

Pike, Abigail Overman 24 

Pike, John 24 

Pinkham, Lydia E. 63 

Pinson, Abijah 26 

Purdie, Gulielma Hoover 58, 59 

Purdie, Samuel 58 

Quaker Quietism 53 
Quietistic period, 40 


Revival Movement. 53 
Reynolds, Fanny O. 37 
Reynolds, Fanny O. (Photo) 38 
Reynolds, Herbert 37 
Robertson, Lottie 60 
Rogers, Beverley P. 37 

Separate business meetings 12 
Shore, Pansy (Photo) 40 
Shore, Pansy D. 38,39 
Stanley, Abigail 31, 46 
Stanley, Joshua 46 
Stanton, EUzabeth Cady 43 
Stoneburner, Carol 64 
Sultan of Turkey 1 5 
Sweet, Mary 23 

Taylor, Nellie Moon 54 


Quaker Women of Carolina 

Terrell, Eldora Haworth 5 1 
Thorne, Dorothy Gilbert 41 
Tomlinson, Allen U. 38 
Treadway, Carole Edgerton 41 


Underground Railroad 46 
United Society of Friends Women 

University of North Carolina at 
Greensboro (UNCG) 36 

V / 

Vacation Bible Schools 39 
Vestal, Lucy 60 
Vining, Morgan 42 


Walters, Mce (Photo) 57 
Wedding ceremonies 20 
West, Jessamyn 49 
White, Alice Paige 38 
White, Alice Paige (Photo) 39 
White, Bertha Smith 60 

White, EUzabeth 60 
White, Helen Magill 63 
White, Henry 20 
White, Lizzie 56 
Willard, Frances E. 49 
Wilson, Sarah Pate 51 
Winslow, Sarah E. 56 
Winston, Laura 50 
Woman Suffragists 44 
Woman's College 36 
Woman's Foreign Missionary 

Association 56 
Woman's Foreign Missionary 

Society 55 
Woman's Missionary Union 56 
Women Preachers 13 
Woody, Lutie (Photo) 57 
Woody, Mary Chawner 36, 49, 50, 

Woody, Mary Chawner (Photo) 50 
Worth, David 44 
Worth, Laura 41 
Worth, Rhoda Macy 50, 54 
Wright, Rachel 24 
Wright, Rhodema 60 


North Carolina United Society of Friends Women 

c/o North CaroHna Yearly Meeting 
5506 Friendly Avenue, Greensboro, NC 27410 

812 PO^' 6™ 

86/21/96 32596 -